Personality refers to the unique psychological characteristics that distinguish a person or group. It is usually described in terms of traits such as self-confidence, dominance, sociability, autonomy, defensiveness, adaptability, and aggressiveness.



(i) Introversion

(ii) Extroversion



(i) Subcultures: Sub cultures are generally formed on the basis of religion and geography. Take any democratic country and you will find many different regions sub divided, with each region having its inherent characteristics.

(ii) Religion: The effects of religion on consumer decisions may be either positive or negative. Some religious beliefs and doctrines may motivate consumers creating an increase in particular consumption activities. In other cases, religious principles may discourage consumption of an item or services.


(iii) Gender: Gender is the major factor out of all the other factors that affects consumer purchasing behaviour. When gender differs, the perception of consuming the product is different as well. Men and women tend to have different choices while shopping because of the difference in their upbringing and socialization.

(iv) Culture: Our cultural factors are basically basic requirements, values, wants behaviors, and preferences that are observed and absorbed by us from our close family members as well as other significant people around us.

(v) Social Class: Each society all over the globe is defined and known by some form of social class. This social class is determined collectively by our family backgrounds, occupation, education, and residence location. Our social class is another component holding the reins for consumer behavior.




(i) Psychological Factors


(ii) Social Factors

(iii) Cultural Factors

(iv) Personal Factors


(v) Economic Factors


(i) Psychological Factors: Factors based on human psychology are a major determinant of consumer behavior, and they includes:


-Motivation: Motivation is the inward drive we have to get what we need. Every person has different needs such as physiological needs, security needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.

-Perception: Customer perception is a process where a customer collects information about a particular product and interprets the information to make a meaningful image of it.

-Learning: Refers to the process by which consumers change their behavior after they gain information or experience. It doesn’t just affect what you buy; it affects how you shop.


-Attitudes: Attitudes are enduring “mental positions” or emotional feelings, favorable or unfavorable evaluations, and action tendencies people have about products, services, companies, or ideas. Since such beliefs and attitudes make up brand image and affect consumer buying behavior, marketers aim to change the beliefs and attitudes to positive ones through designing special campaigns.

(ii) Social Factors: People wish to be socially accepted, so they tend to imitate others including their purchases. Among the most important social factors are:

-Family: Buyer behavior is strongly influenced by the family they belong to. A person develops preferences from his childhood by watching family buy products and continues to buy the same products even when they grow up.


-Reference Groups: Reference groups are groups (social groups, workgroups, or close friends) a consumer identifies with and may want to join. The impact of reference groups varies across products and brands. For example, if the product is visible such as dress or car, then the influence of reference groups will be high.

-Roles and Status: A role consists of the activities that a person is expected to perform. Each role carries a status. For example, if a woman works as a finance manager, she plays two roles: finance manager and mother. Therefore, she is largely influenced by her role and will choose products that communicate it.



(i) It increases the level of participation by individuals:

People become more involved with their government in a variety of ways when federalism is the structure in place. Elected officials are closer to what a citizen is than a state official under this structure, which means people can visit a local office to express their opinions without a fear of judgment. When we have a chance to embrace diversity as a culture, then it is an opportunity to draw upon each of our strengths to create something amazing. Other forms of government do not offer such an opportunity.

(ii) It provides a structure that diffuses governmental power:


Many forms of federalism look to create checks and balances throughout society as a way to create an equal governing process. By diffusing power to multiple branches of office. When power is not centralized in a government, then there are fewer issues with individual corruption that can impact the entire nation.

(iii) It creates a protection against tyranny:

This form of government will also make it challenging for a single branch of government to obtain complete control over the structure. There is no way to obtain runaway power in this structure unless voters approve of that process first. Even when there is a significant majority of one party in the government, it can still be difficult to create monumental changes that impact everyone. This process is one of the primary reasons why democratic countries choose this form over the other governing options which are available.


(iv) It encourages a system of cooperation.

Different communities have unique requirements that they must meet to maximize their quality of life. Instead of mandating that everyone follows the same set of laws, this system allows each community to create a foundation that works the best for their needs. If you travel to almost any town, city, or village in the United States, then you will discover a different set of laws, rules, and regulations to follow. Many of them are similar, but there are also several which are not.

(v) It allows the government to become more responsive to individual needs:


When a government is closer to its citizens, then it can provide a responsive solution when there are citizen needs, emergency situations, or changes that are necessary in the structure of laws. The local governments could distribute resources first instead of relying on the national government like the island because of the availability of local resources.




1. Every adult citizen has the right to vote in elections, on a non-discriminatory basis.

(2) Every adult citizen has the right to access to an effective, impartial and non-discriminatory procedure for the registration of voters.

(3) No eligible citizen shall be denied the right to vote or disqualified from registration as a voter, otherwise than in accordance with objectively verifiable criteria prescribed by law, and provided that such measures are consistent with the State’s obligations under international law.


(4) Every individual who is denied the right to vote or to be registered as a voter shall be entitled to appeal to a jurisdiction competent to review such decisions and to correct errors promptly and effectively.

(5) Every voter has the right to equal and effective access to a polling station in order to exercise his or her right to vote.

(6) Every voter is entitled to exercise his or her right equally with others and to have his or her vote accorded equivalent weight to that of others.


(7) The right to vote in secret is absolute and shall not be restricted in any manner whatsoever.




E-government is the use of technological communications devices, such as computers and the Internet, to provide public services to citizens and other persons in a country or region.


– Inclusive Governance: E-governance helps in building trust between governments and citizens, an essential factor in good governance by using internet-based strategies to involve citizens in the policy process, illustrating government transparency and accountability.


– Easy and Quick Implementation: With e-government, paperwork has been made so simple and intuitive. This facilitates sharing of information and ideas between all government agencies and department to build one mega data base. Getting the government decisions and policies across to the citizens is easy as well, since e-government gives every citizen access to information.

– High Operational Efficiency: What matters a lot to citizens is the efficiency of the services being provided. The effectiveness of government is measured by the quality of its interactions with citizens. The processing of paperwork in a traditional government system is a difficult task which consumes a lot of resources; time spent on paperwork does not create much value for citizens.

– High Level of Trust on Government: For any government to survive or maintain or keep control of power, such government must win the trust of the majority of the citizens. E-government can always afford that for any government that embraces it.


– Reduces Costs of Running a Government: E-government is very cost effective. Let’s take for example that government wants to seek a public opinion on an issue, with e-government system it can take a survey and the opinion very fast at extremely low cost. That also applies when government would want to capture some data

supplier that is known over one that has better quality, and so on.

3.) *Uncertainty*


managers frequently make decisions under conditions of uncertainty—they cannot know the outcome of each alternative until they’ve actually chosen that alternative. Consider, for example, a manager who is trying to decide between one of two possible marketing campaigns. The first is more conservative but is consistent with what the organization has done in the past. The second is more modern and edgier, and might bring much better results . . . or it might be a spectacular failure. The manager making the decision will ultimately have to choose one campaign and see what happens, without ever knowing what the results would have been with the alternate campaign. That uncertainty can make it difficult for some managers to make decisions, because committing to one option means forgoing other options.

4.) *Time Constraints*

Managers often face time constraints that can make effective decision-making a challenge. When there is little time available to collect information and to rationally process it, we are much less likely to make a good nonprogrammed decision. Time pressures can cause us to rely on heuristics rather than engage in deep processing. While heuristics save time, however, they don’t necessarily lead to the best possible solution. The best managers are constantly assessing the risks associated with acting too quickly against those associated with not acting quickly enough.


5.) *Escalation of Commitment*

Given the lack of complete information, managers don’t always make the right decision initially, and it may not be clear that a decision was a bad one until after some time has passed. For example, consider a manager who had to choose between two competing software packages that her organization will use on a daily basis to enhance efficiency. She initially chooses the product that was developed by the larger, more well-established company, reasoning that they will have greater financial resources to invest in ensuring that the technology is good.







Small businesses contribute to local economies by bringing growth and innovation to the community in which the business is established. Small businesses also help stimulate economic growth by providing employment opportunities to people who may not be employable by larger corporations


Job analysis is a family of procedures to identify the content of a job in terms of the activities it involves in addition to the attributes or requirements necessary to perform those activities. 



Marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. 



Barter is an alternative method of trading where goods and services are exchanged directly for one another without using money as an intermediary.


Utility is a term in economics that refers to the total satisfaction received from consuming a good or service.




A decision can be defined as a course of action purposely chosen from a set of alternatives to achieve organizational or managerial objectives or goals.



The nature of financial markets is speculative, but it’s not designed to generate payouts. It was and still is a place where people are given opportunities for investments, and the development of the economy, as well as human nature, is what makes them speculative.

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