A sports injury involves damage to part of your body due to sports, exercise or athletic activities. A sports injury can be acute (sudden) or chronic (develop over time).




A dislocation is an injury in which the ends of your bones are forced from their normal positions. The cause is usually trauma resulting from a fall, an auto accident, or a collision during contact or high-speed sports. Dislocation usually involves the body’s larger joints.

 What are the types of dislocations?

Shoulder dislocations (along with finger dislocations) are the most common type of dislocations orthopedic specialists treat, however any ball and socket joint can experience dislocation. Other types of dislocations include dislocated knee, hip dislocation and elbow dislocation.



A fracture is a break, usually in a bone. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open or compound fracture. Fractures commonly happen because of car accidents, falls, or sports injuries. Other causes are low bone density and osteoporosis, which cause weakening of the bones.

What is fracture and its types?


Closed or open fractures: If the injury doesn’t break open the skin, it’s called a closed fracture. If the skin does open, it’s called an open fracture or compound fracture. Complete fractures: The break goes completely through the bone, separating it in two. Displaced fractures: A gap forms where the bone breaks.





 a strain results from tearing the tendon, which connects the muscle to the bone, while a sprain results from damaging the ligament, which connects one bone to another at the joint.


(3a)Types of passes in handball games – standing Shot –  jump Shot

(3b)- first referee – second referee – scorekeeper

(3c)basketball allows 2 steps after dribbling handball allows 3 steps after dribbling.


 While Handball player must shoot or pass the ball to a teammate before he takes his 4th step or it will result in a traveling violation.

(2 i) Provision of high profile personnel for

the ECOWAS Secretariat agencies since its inception.


(ii) Nigeria Heads of State had served as

chairmen of ECOWAS.

(iii) Nigeria has played major roles in peace-keeping operations in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Cote d’lvoire.


(iv) Nigeria regularly attends all ECOWAS summits.

(v) Nigeria contributes to the development of ECOWAS by hosting summits and conferences.

(vi) Membership of ECOWAS Parliament


makes Nigeria to contribute to sub- regional issues.

(vii) Financial contributions: Nigeria pays her dues regularly to both the secretariat and the ECOWAS Fund

(viii) Actively participates in ECOWAS sponsored activities like trade fair, sports etc.



Most Nupe are farmers, and the staple crops are millet, guinea-corn, yams, rice, and groundnuts. Cassava, maize, and sweet potatoes (grown inland) are of secondary importance. The large proportion of seasonally flooded (fadama) land has allowed a greater emphasis on growing rice, sugarcane, and onions. This has encouraged the establishment of commercial growing and refining of sugar at Bacita. The Nupe practice hoe agriculture, using a large, heavy hoe called a zuku and a small hoe called dugba. The Nupe system of agriculture is based on shifting cultivation combined with rotation of crops. The low population densities and less intense form of agriculture allowed more of the original savanna to survive, and woodland products are significant, particularly from the shea-butter tree and the locust-bean tree. There are many fishermen in the villages on the banks of the Niger and Kaduna rivers and their tributaries. Cattle raising is engaged in by the Bororo Fulani, who move their herds from one pasture to another as necessity dictates.

(i) State of emergency:


When a state of emergency is declared in a country or state, citizens will find some of their rights denied in order to restore peace and order.


(ii) Custom and tradition:

The application of the rule of law may be limited in some cases when the custom and tradition of the people must be respected and preserved.



(iii) Diplomatic immunity:

Due to the fact that ambassadors and high commissioners enjoy some immunities and cannot be prosecuted or punished in the country where they are serving also pose a great limitation to the application of the rule of law.


(iv) Legislative immunity:


This also undermines the application of the rule of law due to the fact that the members of the parliament cannot be sued or prosecuted for any false or libellous statement made in the house whereas an ordinary man on the street can be punished for the same statement.


(v) Delegated legislation:

The delegation of law making power to some bodies other than the legislature often brings about complexity of law and abuse of such power which may lead to violation of fundamental human rights of the citizens even without the opportunity of seeking redress.



(vi) The type of government:

The type and system of government practiced in a country will determine the degree of the application of the rule of law. In a country where military or unitary system of government is adopted, there will be minimum application of the rule of law.

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A bill is a proposed law under consideration of the legislative arm which later be passed into law by the approval of the executive.



(i) First reading:


This is the first stage of passing bill into law which requires the presentation of the drafted bill to the parliament. The bill is read to the hearing of the members of the legislature by the clerk of the house. After the title of the bill is read and there is no opposition, it will be printed into leaflets and distributed among the members for proper assessment before the second reading.


(ii) Second reading:

This is the stage which the bill will be deliberated and debated on. The presenter of the bill will be invited to explain the purpose of the bill and defend it. After which, the members will vote the bill to the next stage. If the bill receives majority votes, it will move to the next stage and if not, it will end without any amendment.



(iii) The committee stage:

Here, the bill is passed to one or more committees in the house for necessary amendment and discussion. There are different committees in the house which deliberate on different matters.


(iv) Report stage:


This is the stage in which the various findings about the bill will be documented during the of amendment. The findings or reports about the bill will be read by the speaker or Chairman of the standing committees.


(v) Third reading:

This is the last stage in which proper assessment and scrutinization will be carried out to ensure that the bill is properly amended. During this stage, another and final vote will be carried out before the bill is presented to the executive for approval. Once the assent is given to the bill by the executive president, then it bcomes law

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(i)Preservation of existing cultural values:

The system of indirect rule was a success in the North because it preserved the existing cultural values of the native and also assisted in improving them to gradually accept or adapt to a modern system of government.



(ii) The imposition and collection of tax:

The administration of indirect rule took the issue of tax collection very serious which was already in existence in the North.


(iii) Illiteracy:


Majority of the people in the North were illiterate as such they could not resist or challenge the colonial imposition or rule of the foreign power.


(iv) Centralization of power:

The administrative system in the North was highly centralised and it was thus adopted and accepted by the British through the use of the indirect rule.


(v) Obedience to traditional authorities:

Northern had great respect to constituted authorities and that made it easy for the indirect rule to be used to govern the people.


(vi) Training of local administrators:


The indirect rule aided in the training of the local leaders in the North in its method of administration.



*Number 1*


*Features of insurance contract*

i.) Insurable interest

ii.)  Contract of ‘Uberrimae fidei’ or Contract of Utmost good faith


iii.) Indemni0

iv.) Mitigation of Loss

  1. V) Causa proxima

vi.) Subrogation






A person can enter into a contract of insurance only when he has some insurable interest on the life or property which is insured. Insurable interest basically means that the non-existence or any injury or damage caused to a property or life should bring loss which can be estimated in terms of money.



*Contract of ‘Uberrimae fidei’ or Contract of Utmost good faith*

Both the parties to the contract, that is the insured and the insurer have to disclose all the facts connected with the insurance contract. Non-disclosure of facts or declaration of false information will make the contract null and void.




Life insurance is different from contract of indemnity. It is a contingent contract where the event death is certain to take place but it is a question of time. Hence, the insurance company cannot guarantee against death or prevent death but can agree to pay a stipulated sum in the event of death happening at an earlier date than agreed upon.



Though insurance aims at minimizing the loss, it is expected that every party to the contract of insurance should take adequate steps to minimize the loss. Thus, when a fire accident takes place in a match factory, the insured should minimize the loss by taking adequate preventive measures. He cannot allow the goods to be destroyed by fire simply because he has insured them.




The cause for the accident should be a direct cause for which an insurance is taken and it should not be a remote cause. In other words, the insurance company will pay compensation to the insured only when the cause of accident is directly related to the loss. If the loss is the result of two causes, one must look into the nearest cause and ascertain whether that cause is insured.




Subrogation means stepping into the shoes of another person. When the insurance company pays full compensation to the insured, it takes over the ownership of the goods insured and will enjoy complete right of taking necessary legal steps to claim compensation from such persons who are responsible for the loss suffered.




Risk avoidance is a way for businesses to reduce their level of risk by not engaging in certain high-risk activities. While it’s impossible to eliminate all risks, a risk avoidance strategy can help prevent some losses from happening. It’s an important part of any risk management plan and a way to protect your organization’s assets from potential losses.


2ii) Risk reduction deals with mitigating potential losses through more of a staggered approach. For example, suppose an investor already owns oil stocks. The two factors discussed earlier are still relevant: there is political risk associated with the production of oil, and oil stocks often have a high level of unsystematic risk.


2iv) Risk transfer refers to a risk management technique in which risk is transferred to a third party. In other words, risk transfer involves one party assuming the liabilities of another party. Purchasing insurance is a common example of transferring risk from an individual or entity to an insurance company.


2v) A captive insurance company is a wholly-owned subsidiary insurer that provides risk-mitigation services for its parent company or a group of related companies. A captive insurance company may be formed if the parent company cannot find a suitable outside firm to insure them against particular business risks, if the premiums paid to the captive insurer create tax savings, if the insurance provided is more affordable, or if it offers better coverage for the parent company’s risks.

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