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An economic grouping is the coming together of different countries with common economic interests and goals to promote economic cooperation and development among member states.





(i) To promote co-operation and development in all fields of economic activity


(ii) To raise the standard of living of the people

(iii) To increase and maintain economic stability in the sub-region

(iv) To have regional economic co-operation


(v) To abolish obstacle to the free movement of persons, goods and services between member states 

(vi) To harmonize monetary policies as required for the proper functioning of the community.

(vii) To maintain political stability in the event of crisis




(i) The Executive Secretariat:

It is responsible for coordination of the work of the Department of State internally, serving as the liaison between the department’s bureaus and the offices of the Secretary, deputy secretaries, and under secretaries.



(ii) The Tribunal of the Community:

Tribunal is responsible for interpreting ECOWAS treaties. The ECOWAS Tribunal is the judicial organ of the community, It ensures that law and justice prevail in the interpretation and implementation of ECOWAS treaty.



[Pick One]

(i). Positive charge: This type of charge can be produced by rubbing a glass rod with silk.





(ii). Negative charge: It can be obtained on an ebonite rod by rubbing it with fur.



V1= 500cm³


T1 = 23° + 273= 296k

P1 = 600mmHg

V2 = ?


T2= 37° + 273 = 310K

P2 = 720mmHg


V1P1 / T1 = V2P2 / T2


500 x 600 / 296 = V2 x 720 / 310

V2 = 500 x 600 x 310 / 720 x 296

V2 = 436.37 cm³



Instruction: Answer question 1 and any other 5 questions making it 6 questions in total.


(1) loading….







Scalar Quantity Vector Quantity

These are physical quantities which are expressed only by their magnitude. These physical quantities require magnitude as well as the direction to express them, then only their meaning is complete.


We need two parameters to express a scalar quantity. We require three parameters to express a vector quantity.

The parameters are:

(i) unit in which the quantity is being measured


(ii) numerical value of the measured quantity. The parameters are:

(i) unit

(ii) direction


(iii) numerical value of quantity.

Scalar quantities can be added, subtracted, multiplied and divided by simple arithmetic methods. Vector quantities follow different algebra for their addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.


(2b) opposite direction



Resultant = 3N – 4N= -1N






(i) The principle of floatation states that when a body floats with its volume partially above the liquid surface, the quantity of the liquid displaced by the body is equal to the quantity of the submerged portion of the body. As the body is in equilibrium, the buoyant force acting on the body must be equal to its weight.



– Gravity (pulls object downward)


– Buoyant force (pushes object upward). The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the volume of water displaced by the object.




(4a) E= mgh = 40 X 10 X 0.3 X 6= 720J



(4b) P= mgh/t


m= PT/GH= 60 X 12 / 10 X 0.3 X 6 = 40g





(6a) Transverse waves particles of waves move perpendicular in the direction of the wave while in longitudinal waves particles move horizontally in the direction of the wave.



(i) Water waves


(ii) Sound waves







(i) The angle between the incident ray and the normal is equal to the angle between the reflected ray and the normal.

(ii) The incident ray, the normal and the reflected ray are all in the same plane.


(iii) The incident ray and the reflected ray are on different sides of the normal





(i) Colorimeter

(ii) spectrophotometer

(iii) Periscope


(iv) kaleidoscope




(8a) The resistivity of a material  is defined in terms of the magnitude of the electric field across it that gives a certain current density.



(8b) R=Pl/A


0.5= 0.000003 X 4 / A


0.5A = 0.000012



A= 0.000012/0.5= 0.000024m²







(i) It makes walking and running possible.

(ii) It enables gripping of belt in machines possible.


(iii) It enables nails to stay in the wall when driven.





(i) It always resists the motion, so extra energy is required to overcome it.

(ii) It causes wear and tear of machines.

(iii) It decreases the life expectancy of moving parts of vehicles.




The bob does not oscillate forever. It comes to rest because air resistance resists its motion. The pendulum loses its kinetic energy to overcome this friction and stops after some time.




The period of oscillation of a simple pendulum is known to be affected by the length of the pendulum and the acceleration due to gravity. The period is known to be completely independent of other factors like the mass of the pendulum.









Sure and Legit Exam Answers. :100:






(i) Tubes, fins or passages for conducting or directing the heat transfer fluid from the inlet to the outlet.

(ii) Abserver plate which may be flat, corrugated or grooved with tubes, fins or passages attached to it.




NigeriaSat-1 is a micro satellite used in monitoring disasters managements and various mapping campaign WHILE NigercomSat-1 is a mega satellite responsible for creating an enabling environment for competition among operators in the industry as well as ensuring the provision of qualitative and efficient telecommunications services



V = image

U = Object

V = 2u

1/f₀ = (1/V) + (1/u)

1/f₀ = (1/2u) + (1/u)

1/f₀ = (1+2)/2u

1/f₀ = 3/2u

f₀ = 2u/3

Magnification = (V/f₀ + 1)

M = [2u/(2u/3)] + 1

M = [(2u/1) x (3/2u)] + 1

M = 3 + 1

M = 4





(i) Direct service is service paid directly by those who enjoy them.

(ii) Direct service providers render their services to people who are willing to pay for them.



(i) Indirect service providers render services to the general public and are paid indirectly by the general public through taxes paid to the government.

(ii) Indirect service is a government-funded service that is delivered to the general public.



– Devaluation

– Imposition on embargo

– Import quota

– Reduction of exercise duty

– Licence

– Tariff



– Regulatory Measures:

Every country wants to export its surplus natural resources, agricultural produce and manufactured goods to the extent, it can and import only these goods and products which are not produced or manufactured within the country. For this purpose regulatory measures like tariff barriers (custom duties) non-tariff barriers, quota restrictions, foreign exchange restrictions, technological and administrative regulations, consulter for­malities, state trading and preferential arrangements, trade agreements and joint commis­sions etc. Come in the way of free trade and unfettered flow of foreign business.


– Procedural Difficulties:

Different countries have evolved different procedures, practices and documents in order to regulate the export trade. Some of these such as foreign exchange control regulations and others have been formulated after keeping in view the national objectives and have posed certain procedural problems to exporters and importers.


– Risk in transit:

Foreign trade involves much greater risk than home trade. Goods have to be transported over long distances and they are exposed to perils of the sea. Many of these risks can be covered through marine insurance but increases the cost of goods.


– Lack of information about foreign businessmen:

In the absence of direct and close relationship between buyers and sellers, special steps are necessary to verify the creditworthiness of foreign buyers. It is difficult to obtain reliable information concerning the financial position and business standing of the foreign traders. Therefore, credit risk is high.


– Import and export restrictions:

Every country charges customs duties on imports to protect its home industries. Similarly, tariff rates are put on exports of raw materials. Importers and exporters have to face tariff restrictions.

They are required to fulfill several customs formalities and rules. Foreign trade policy, procedures, rules and regulations differ from country to country and keep on changing from time to time.




Balance of trade (BOT) is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and the value of a country’s imports for a given period.



– Current account: This account scans all the incoming and outgoing of goods and services between countries. All the payments made for raw materials and constructed goods are covered under this account. Few other deliveries that are included in this category are from tourism, engineering, stocks, business services, transportation, and royalties from licenses and copyrights. All these combine together to make a BOP of a country.


– Capital account: Capital transactions like purchase and sale of assets (non-financial) like lands and properties are monitored under this account. This account also records the flow of taxes, acquisition, and sale of fixed assets by immigrants moving into the different country. The shortage or excess in the current account is governed by the finance from the capital account and vice versa.



– To protect nascent industries

– To fortify national defense programs

– To support domestic employment opportunities

– To combat aggressive trade policies

– To protect the environment




Corel features

(i) Toolbox: Utility tools, Diagramming Objects

(ii) Meme bar

(iii) Colour palette

(iv) standard toolbar



  • Correl Draw is a graphics package While Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation package
  • Corel draw can save to Microsoft PowerPoint but not the reverse




Document Views are:

(i) Print layout

(ii) Web Layout

(iii) Outline

(iv) Draft



(a) Hyphenation: Hyphenation is the use of a hyphen to break up word when it reaches the edge of a document. To adjust Hyphenation settings on Microsoft word, click “Page layout” Tab, Choose “Hyphenation” And select “Automatic” or “None” or “Manual”


(b) Cross Reference:


(i)SEXISM; Readers can find ample evidence that suggests the relationship between Alison and Jimmy, and the short-lived one between Jimmy and Helena, is rife with sexist undertones. In the first act alone, Jimmy begins an angry tirade about Alison and women in general. Jimmy’s anger and hatred is directed at women in general. The examples in the play that are taken to represent a greater sexism on Jimmy’s part are his relationships with Alison and then Helera, the most striking point of which is that after a time, Helena stands silently and emotionally passively at the ironing board on Sunday night just like Alison used to do. The similarity between Helena and Alison is that they are both from the upper class and are both religious with “establishment” church affiliations. Jimmy’s great criticism is against the satisfied, unthinking privilege given to and assumed by the upper classes who have no need to think or be intelligent, as Nigel represents, or feel, as Alison and Helena represent. When Jimmy’s treatment of Alison and Helena are seen from a 1950s perspective as representative of Jimmy’s hatred of a class division that defrauds individuals on both sides of the class divide – of their humanity, the undertones of sexism take a secondary position.


(ii)THE ANGRY YOUNG MAN; Osborne’s play was the first to explore the theme of the “Angry Young Man.” This term describes a generation of post-World War II artists and working class men who generally subscribed to leftist, sometimes anarchist, politics and social views. According to cultural critics, these young men were not a part of any organized movement but were, instead, individuals angry at a post-Victorian Britain that refused to acknowledge their social and class alienation. Anyone in the “angry young man” leaning, due to their low social class, would be “required” to dislike anyone of upper-class heritage. Jimmy Porter is often considered to be literature’s seminal example of the angry young man. Jimmy is angry at the social and political structures that he believes have kept him from achieving his dreams and aspirations. He directs this anger towards his friends and, most notably, his wife Alison.


(iii)ANGER AND HATRED; Jimmy Porter’s anger dominates the play. He operates out of a deep well of anger. His anger is directed at those he loves because they refuse to have strong feelings, at a society that did not fulfil promises of opportunity, and at those who smugly assume their places in the social and power structure and who do not care for others. This theme is pervasive, affecting the plot, the characters, and the tone of the entire play. In the first act for instance, Jimmy’s anger causes him to lash out at his wife and his business partner, Cliff, calling them boring, stupid, and unambitious, in large part because they don’t share his rage and frustration. Like many working-class men, Jimmy feels overlooked by the Establishment, shut out by polite society, and relegated to menial jobs where he is underutilized and underpaid. He also lashes out in anger because of his deeply felt helplessness. When he was ten years old he watched his idealist father dying for a year from wounds received fighting for democracy in the Spanish Civil War, his father talking for hours, “pouring out all that was left of his life to one bewildered little boy.” He says, “You see, I learnt at an early age what it was to be angry – angry and helpless. And I can never forget it.”

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