The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Chemistry is to

prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the

course objectives, which are to:

(i) apply the basic principles governing scientific methods in new situations;

(ii) interpret scientific data;

(iii) deduce the relationships between chemistry and other sciences;

(iv) apply the knowledge of chemistry to industry and everyday life.


  1. Separation of mixtures and

purification of chemical


(a) Pure and impure substances

(b) Boiling and melting points.

(c) Elements, compounds and mixtures

(d) Chemical and physical changes.

(e) Separation processes:

evaporation, simple and fractional distillation,

sublimation, filtration, crystallization, paper

and column chromatography, simple and

fractional crystallization.

  1. Chemical combination

Stoichiometry, laws of definite and multiple

proportions, law of conservation of matter,

Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes,

Avogadro’s law; chemical symbols, formulae,

equations and their uses, relative atomic mass

based on 12C=12, the mole concept and

Avogadro’s number.

Kinetic theory of matter and Gas Laws

(a) An outline of the kinetic theory of matter,

melting, vapourization and reverse processes;

melting and boiling explained in terms of

molecular motion and Brownian movement.

Candidates should be able to:

  1. i) distinguish between pure and impure


  1. ii) use boiling and melting points as criteria for

purity of chemical substances;

(iii) distinguish between elements, compounds and


(iv) differentiate between chemical and physical


(v) identify the properties of the components of a


(vi) specify the principle involved in each separation


Candidates should be able to:

(i) perform simple calculations involving formulae,

equations/chemical composition and the mole


(ii) deduce the chemical laws from given


(iii) interpret data based on these laws;

(iv) interpret graphical representations related

to these laws.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) apply the theory to distinguish between solids,

liquids and gases;

(ii) deduce reasons for change of state;

(iii) draw inferences based on molecular motion;



(b) The laws of Boyle, Charles, Graham and

Dalton (law of partial pressure); combined

gas law, molar volume and atomicity of gases.

  1. Atomic structure and bonding

(a) (i)The concept of atoms, molecules and ions,

the works of Dalton, Millikan, Rutherford,

Mosely, Thompson and Bohr. Simple

hydrogen spectrum, Ionization of gases

illustrating the electron as fundamental

particle of matter.

(ii) Atomic structure, electron configuration,

atomic number, mass number and isotopes;

specific examples should be drawn from

elements of atomic number 1 to 20. Shapes

of s and p orbitals.

(b) The periodic table and periodicity of

elements, presentation of the periodic table

with a view to recognizing families of

elements e.g. alkali metals, halogens, the

noble gases and transition metals. The

variation of the following properties should

be noticed: ionization energy, ionic radii,

electron affinity and electronegativity.

(c) Chemical bonding.

Electrovalency and covalency, the electron

configuration of elements and their tendency

to attain the noble gas structure. Hydrogen

bonding and metallic bonding as special

types of electrovalency and covalency

respectively; coordinate bond as a type

of covalent bond as illustrated by complexes

like [Fe(CN)6]

3-, [Fe(CN)6]

4-, [Cu(NH3)4]


and [Ag(NH3)2]


; van der Waals’ forces

should be mentioned as a special type of

bonding forces.

(d) Shapes of simple molecules: linear ((H2, 02,

C12,HCI and CO2), non-linear (H2O) and

tetrahedral; (CH4)

(iv) deduce chemical laws form given expressions/


(v) interpret graphical representations related to

these laws;

(vi) perform simple calculations based on these laws

and the relationship between the vapour density

of gases and the relative molecular mass.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) distinguish between atom, molecules and ions;

(ii) assess the contributions of these scientists to

the development of the atomic structure;

(iii) deduce the number of protons, neutrons and

electrons from atomic and mass numbers of

an atom;

(iv) apply the rules guiding the arrangement of

electrons in an atom;

(v) relate isotopy to mass number;

(vi) perform simple calculations on relative

atomic mass

(vii) determine the number of electrons in s and

p atomic orbitals.

(viii) relate atomic number to the position of an

element on the periodic table;

(ix) relate properties of groups of elements on the

periodic table;

(x) identify reasons for variation in properties

across the period.

(xi) differentiate between the different types

of bonding.

(xii) deduce bond types based on electron


(xiii) relate the nature of bonding to properties

of compounds;

(xiv) apply it in everyday chemistry;

(xv) differentiate between the various shapes

of molecules






(b) Nuclear Chemistry:

(i) Radioactivity

(elementary treatment only)

(ii) Nuclear reactions. Simple

equations, uses and

applications of natural and

artificial radioactivity.

  1. Air

The usual gaseous constituents

– nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon

(IV) oxide and the noble

gases (argon and neon), proportion

of oxygen in the air e.g. by burning

phosphorus or by using alkaline pyrogallol,

air as a mixture and some uses of the noble


  1. Water

Composition by volume:

Water as a solvent, atmospheric

gases dissolved in water and their biological

significance. Water as a product of the

combustion of hydrogen.

Hard and soft water:

Temporary and permanent

hardness and methods of softening

hard water. Purification of town

water supplies. Water of

crystallization, efflorescence,

deliquescence and hygroscopy.

Examples of the substances exhibiting these

properties and their uses.

  1. Solubility

(a) Unsaturated, saturated

and supersaturated solutions.

Solubility curves and simple

deductions from them,

(solubility defined in terms of

mole per dm3

) and simple


xvi) distinguish between ordinary chemical

reaction and nuclear reaction;

(xvii) differentiate between natural and

artificial radioactivity;

(xviii) compare the properties of the different

types of nuclear radiations;

(xix) compute simple calculations on the

half-life of a radioactive material;

(xx) balance simple nuclear equation;

(xxi) identify the various applications of


Candidates should be able to:

(i) deduce reason (s) for the existence of

air as a mixture;

(ii) identify the principle involved in the

separation of air components;

(iii) deduce reasons for the variation in the

composition of air in the environment;

(iv) specify the uses of some of the

constituents of air.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the various uses of water;

(ii) distinguish between the properties of hard and

soft water;

(iii) determine the causes of hardness;

(iv) identify methods of removal of hardness;

(v) describe the processes involved in the

purification of water for town supply;

(vi) distinguish between these phenomena;

(vii) identify the various compounds that exhibit

these phenomena.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) distinguish between the different types of


(ii) interpret solubility curves;

(iii) calculate the amount of solute that can

dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a

given temperature;

(iv) deduce that solubility is temperature-dependent;





(b) Solvents for fats, oil and paints

and the use of such solvents

for the removal of stains.

(c) Suspensions and colloids:

Harmattan haze and paints as

examples of suspensions and

fog, milk, aerosol spray and

rubber solution as examples

of colloids.

  1. Environmental Pollution

(a) Sources and effects of pollutants.

(b) Air pollution:

Examples of air pollutants such as

H2S, CO, SO2, oxides of nitrogen,

fluorocarbons and dust.

(c) Water pollution

Sewage and oil pollution should be


(d) Soil pollution:

Oil spillage, Biodegradable and

non-biodegradable pollutants.

  1. Acids, bases and salts

(a) General characteristics and properties of

acids, bases and salts. Acids/base indicators,

basicity of acids, normal, acidic, basic and

double salts. An acid defined as a substance

whose aqueous solution furnishes H3O



or as a proton donor. Ethanoic, citric and

tartaric acids as examples of naturally

occurring organic acids, alums as examples

of double salts, preparation of salts by

neutralization, precipitation and action of

acids on metals. Oxides and

trioxocarbonate (IV) salts

(b) Qualitative comparison of the

conductances of molar solutions of

strong and weak acids and bases,

relationship between conductance,

amount of ions present and their relative


(v) classify solvents based on their uses;

(vi) differentiate between a true solution,

suspension and colloids;

(vii) compare the properties of a true solution

and a ‘false’ solution.

(viii) provide typical examples of suspensions

and colloids.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the different types of pollution and


(ii) classify pollutants as biodegradable and


(iii) assess the effects of pollution on the


(iv) recommend measures for control of

environment pollution.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) distinguish between the properties of

acids and bases;

(ii) identify the different types of acids

and bases;

(iii) differentiate between acidity and

alkalinity using acid/base indicators;

(iv) identify the various methods of

preparation of salts;

(v) classify different types of salts;

  1. vi) relate degree of dissociation to strength

of acids and bases;

(vii) relate degree of dissociation to






(c) pH and pOH scale.

pH defined as – log[H3O



(d) Acid/base titrations.

(e) Hydrolysis of salts:

Simple examples such as

NH4C1, AICI3, Na2CO3, CH3COONa to be


  1. Oxidation and reduction

(a) Oxidation in terms of the

addition of oxygen or removal

of hydrogen.

(b) Reduction as removal of oxygen

or addition of hydrogen.

(c) Oxidation and reduction in terms

of electron transfer.

(d) Use of oxidation numbers.

Oxidation and reduction treated

as change in oxidation.

number and use of oxidation numbers

in balancing simple equations.

IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic


(e) Tests for oxidizing and reducing


  1. Electrolysis

(a) Electrolytes and non-electrolytes.

Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.

(b) Electrolysis of dilute H2SO4,

aqueous CuSO4, CuC12 solution, dilute

and concentrated NaC1 solutions and fused

NaC1 and factors affecting discharge

of ions at the electrodes.

(viii) perform simple calculations on pH;

(ix) identify the appropriate acid-base


(x) interpret graphical representation of

titration curves;

(xi) perform simple calculations based on

the mole concept;

(xii) balance equations for the hydrolysis

of salts;

(xiii) deduce the properties (acidic, basic,

neutral) of the resultant solution.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the various forms of expressing

oxidation and reduction;

(ii) classify chemical reactions in terms of

oxidation or reduction;

(iii) balance redox reaction equations;

(iv) deduce the oxidation number of chemical


(v) compute the number of electron transfer

in redox reactions;

(vi) identify the name of redox species using

IUPAC nomenclature.

(vii) distinguish between oxidizing and reducing

agents in redox reactions.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify between electrolytes and non-


(ii) perform calculations based on faraday as a

mole of electrons.

(iii) identify suitable electrodes for different


(iv) specify the chemical reactions at the


(v) determine the products at the electrodes;

(vi) identify the factors that affect the product

of electrolysis;





(c) Uses of electrolysis:

Purification of metals e.g.

copper and production of

elements and compounds

e.g. A1, Na, O2, Cl2 and NaOH.

(d) Electrochemical cells:

Redox series (K, Na, Ca, Mg,

AI, Zn, Fe, PbII, H, Cu, Hg, Au,)

half-cell reactions and electrode potentials.

Simple calculations only.

(e) Corrosion as an electrolytic process,

cathodic protection of metals,

painting, electroplating and coating

with grease or oil as ways of

preventing iron from corrosion.

  1. Energy changes

(a) Energy changes(∆H) accompanying physical

and chemical changes:

dissolution of substances in or

reaction with water e.g. Na, NaOH,

K, NH4, Cl. Endothermic (+∆H) and

exothermic (-∆H) reactions.

(b) Entropy as an order-disorder

phenomenon: simple illustrations

like mixing of gases and dissolution

of salts.

(c) Spontaneity of reactions:



= 0 as a criterion for

equilibrium, ∆G greater or

less than zero as a criterion for

non-spontaneity or spontaneity.

  1. Rates of Chemical Reaction

(a) Elementary treatment of the following factors

which can change the rate of a chemical


(i) Temperature e.g. the reaction between HCI

and Na2S2O3 or Mg and HCI

(vii) specify the different areas of application of


(viii) identify the various electrochemical cells;

(ix) calculate electrode potentials using half-

cell reaction equations;

(x) determine the different areas of

applications of electrolytic processes;

(XI) apply the methods to protect metals.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) determine the types of heat changes

(∆H) in physical and chemical processes;

(ii) interpret graphical representations of heat


(iii) relate the physical state of a substance

to the degree of orderliness;

(iv) determine the conditions for spontaneity

of a reaction ;

(v) relate (∆H), ∆S


and ∆G


as the driving

forces for chemical reactions;

(vi) solve simple problems based on the

relationships ∆G


= ∆H





Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the factors that affect the rates of a

chemical reaction;

(ii) determine the effects of these factors on

the rate of reactions;

(iii) recommend ways of moderating these effects;






(ii) Concentration e.g. the reaction between HCl

and Na2S2O3, HCl and marble and the iodine

clock reaction, for gaseous systems, pressure

may be used as concentration term.

(iii) Surface area e.g. the reaction

between marble and HCI with

marble in

(i) powdered form

(ii) lumps of the same mass.

(iv) Catalyst e.g. the decomposition

of H2O2 or KCIO3 in the

presence or absence of MnO2

(b) Concentration/time curves.

(c) Activation energy

Qualitative treatment of Arrhenius’ law and

the collision theory, effect of

light on some reactions. e.g. halogenation of


  1. Chemical equilibra

Reversible reactions and factors governing the

equilibrium position. Dynamic equilibrium. Le

Chatelier’s principle and equilibrium constant.

Simple examples to include action of steam on

iron and N2O4 



No calculation will be required.

  1. Non-metals and their compounds

(a) Hydrogen: commercial production from

water gas and cracking of petroleum

fractions, laboratory preparation,

properties, uses and test for hydrogen.

(b) Halogens: Chlorine as a representative

element of the halogen. Laboratory

preparation, industrial preparation by

electrolysis, properties and uses, e.g. water

sterilization, bleaching, manufacture of

HC1, plastics and insecticides.

  1. iv) examine the effect of concentration on the

rate of a chemical reaction;

(v) describe how the rate of a chemical

reaction is affected by surface area;

(vi) determine the types of catalysts suitable for

different reactions.

(vii) interpret reaction rate curves;

(viii) solve simple problems on the rate

of reactions;

(x) relate the rate of reaction to the kinetic

theory of matter.

(xi) examine the significance of activation

energy to chemical reactions.

(xi) deduce the value of activation energy

(Ea) from reaction rate curves.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) identify the factors that affects the position

of equilibrium of a chemical reaction;

(ii) predict the effects of each factor on the

position of equilibrium.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) predict reagents for the laboratory and

industrial preparation of these gases and

their compounds.

(ii) identify the properties of the gases and their


(iii) compare the properties of these gases and

their compounds.

(iv) specify the uses of each gas and its


(v) determine the specific test for each gas and its


(vi) determine specific tests for Cl, SO4



S2, NH4

4+, NO3

, CO3







Hydrochloric acid preparation and properties.

Chlorides and test for chlorides.

(c) Oxygen and Sulphur

(i) Oxygen:

Laboratory preparation, properties and uses.

Commercial production from liquid air.

Oxides: Acidic,basic, amphoteric and neutral,

trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope and the

importance of ozone in the atmosphere.

(ii) Sulphur:

Uses and allotropes:

preparation of allotropes is not expected .

Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur (IV)

oxide, the reaction of SO2 with alkalis.

Trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts, the

effect of acids on salts of trioxosulphate (IV),

Tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid: Commercial

preparation (contact process only), properties as

a dilute acid, an oxidizing and a dehydrating

agent and uses. Test for SO4



Hydrogen sulphide: Preparation and Properties

as a weak acid, reducing agent and precipitating

agent. Test for S2-

(d) Nitrogen:

(i) Laboratory preparation

(ii) Production from liquid air

(iii) Ammonia:

Laboratory and industrial

preparations (Haber Process only),

properties and uses, ammonium salts

and their uses, oxidation of

ammonia to nitrogen (IV)

oxide and trioxonitrate (V)


Test NH4


(iv) Trioxonitrate (V) acid:

Laboratory preparation

from ammonia;

properties and uses. Trioxonitrate (V) salt-

action of heat and uses. Test for NO3


(v) Oxides of nitrogen:


(vii) identify the allotrope oxygen;

(viii) determine the significance of ozone to

our environment.

(ix) identify the allotropes of sulphur and their


(x) specify the commercial preparation of

the acid, its properties and uses;

(xi) predicts reagents for the laboratory Preparation

for the gas;

(xii) specify the laboratory and industrial

preparation for the gas;

(xiii) use Haber process for the industrial

preparation of ammonia;

(xiv) identify reagents for the laboratory preparation

of the acid, its properties and uses;






The nitrogen cycle.

(e) Carbon:

(i) Allotropes: Uses and


(ii) Carbon (IV) oxide-

Laboratory preparation, properties

and uses. Action of heat on


(IV) salts and test for CO3


(iii) Carbon (II) oxide:

Laboratory preparation, properties

including its effect on blood;

sources of carbon (II) oxide to

include charcoal, fire and exhaust


(iv) Coal: Different types, products

obtained form destructive

distillation of wood and coal.

(v) Coke: Gasification and uses.

Manufacture of synthetic gas and


  1. Metals and their compounds

(a) Alkali metals e.g. sodium

(i) Sodium hydroxide:-

Production by electrolysis of

brine, its action on aluminium, zinc and

lead ions.

Uses including precipitation of

metallic hydroxides.

(ii) Sodium trioxocarbonate (IV)

and sodium hydrogen trioxocarbonate

(IV): Production by Solvay process,

properties and uses, e.g.

Na2CO3 in the manufacture of glass.

(iii) Sodium chloride: its occurrence in

sea water and uses, the economic

importance of sea water and the

recovery of sodium chloride.

(b) Alkaline-earth metals, e.g. calcium;

calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide

and calcium trioxocarbonate (IV);

Properties and uses. Preparation of

calcium oxide from sea shells, the

chemical composition of cement

and the setting of mortar. Test for Ca2+




(xv) examine the relevance of nitrogen cycle

to the environment.

(xvi) identify allotropes of carbon;

(xvii) predict reagents for the laboratory

preparation of CO2;

(xviii) specify the properties of the gas and its


(xiv) determine the test for CO2;

(xx) determine the reagents for the

laboratory preparation of the gas;

(xxi) examine its effect on human;

(xxii) identify the different forms of coal:

(xxiiii) determine their uses;

(xxiv) specify the uses of coke and synthetic gas.


Candidates should be able to:

(i) determine the method for extraction suitable

for each metal;

(ii) relate the methods of extraction to the

properties for the metals;

(iii) compare the chemical reactivities of the metals;

(iv) specify the uses of the metals;

(v) determine specific test for metallic ions;

(vi) determine the process for the production

of the compounds of these metals;

(vii) compare the chemical reactivities of the


(viii) specify the uses of these compounds;

(ix) determine the processes for the

preparation of the compounds of the






(c) Aluminium

Purification of bauxite, electrolytic

extraction, properties and uses of

aluminium and its compounds. Test

for A13+

(d) Tin

Extraction form its ores.

Properties and uses.

(e) Metals of the first transition series.

Characteristic properties:

(i) electron configuration

(ii) oxidation states

(iii) complex ion formation

(iv) formationof coloured ions

(f) Iron

Extraction form sulphide and oxide

ores, properties and uses,

different forms of iron and their

properties and advantages of steel

over iron.

Test for Fe2+ and Fe3+

(g) Copper

Extraction from sulphide and oxide

ores, properties and uses of copper

salts, preparation and uses of

c o p p er ( I I ) tetraoxosulphate

(VI). Test for Cu2+

(h) Alloy

Steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze, type-

metal, duralumin and soft solder

(constituents and uses only).

  1. Organic Compounds

An introduction to the tetravalency of

carbon, the general formula, IUPAC

nomenclature and the determination of

empirical formula of each class of the

organic compounds mentioned below.

(a) Aliphatic hydrocarbons

(i) Alkanes

Homologous series in relation

to physical properties,

substitution reaction and a few

examples and uses of halogenated

products. Isomerism: structural

only (examples on isomerism should

(x) describe the method of purification

of bauxite

(xi) relate the method of extraction to it properties;

(xii) specify the uses of tin;

(xiii) identify the general properties of the first

transition metals;

(xiv) deduce reasons for the specific properties

of the transition metals;

(xv) determine the IUPAC names of simple

transition metal complexes.

(xvi) determine the suitable method of

extraction for the metal;

(xvii) specify the properties and uses of the


(xviii) identify the appropriate method of

extraction for the metal and its compounds;

(xix) relate the properties of the metal and its

compound to their uses.

(xx) specify the constituents and uses of the various

alloys mentioned.

(xxi) compare the properties and uses of alloys

to pure metals.

Candidates should be able to:

(i) derive the name of organic compounds form their

general formulae;

(ii) relate the name of a compound to its structure;

(iii) relate the tetravalency of carbon to its ability

to form chains of compound (catenation);

(iv) classify compounds according to their

functional groups;

(v) derive empirical formula and molecular

formula, from given data;

(vi) relate structure/functional groups to specific


(vii) derive various isomeric form from a given






not go beyond six carbon atoms).

Petroleum: composition, fractional

distillation and major products;

cracking and reforming,

Petrochemicals – starting materials of

organic syntheses, quality of petrol

and meaning of octane number.

(ii) Alkenes

Isomerism: structural and geometric

isomerism, additional and

polymerization reactions, polythene

and synthetic rubber as examples of

products of polymerization and its use

in vulcanization.

(iii) Alkynes

Ethyne – production from action of

water on carbides, simple reactions and

properties of ethyne.

(b) Aromatic hydrocarbons e.g. benzene –

Structure, properties and uses.

(c) Alkanols

Primary, secondary, tertiary – production

of ethanol by fermentation and from

petroleum by-products. Local examples

of fermentation and distillation, e.g.

gin from palm wine and other local

sources and glycerol as a polyhydric


Reactions of OH group – oxidation as a

distinguishing test between primary,

secondary and tertiary alkanols.

(d) Alkanals and alkanones.

Chemical test to distinguish between

Alkanals and alkanones.

(e) Alkanoic acids.

Chemical reactions; neutralization and

esterification, ethanedioic (oxalic) acid

as an example of a dicarboxylic acid

and benzene carboxylic acid as an

example of an aromatic acid.

(viii) distinguish between the different types of


(ix) classify the various types of hydrocarbon;

(x) distinguish each class of hydrocarbon by their


(xi) specify the uses of various hydrocarbons;

(xii) identify crude oil as a complex mixture

of hydrocarbon;

(xiii) relate the fractions of hydrocarbon to their

properties and uses;

(xiv) relate transformation processes to quality

improvement of the fractions;

  1. xv) distinguish between various

polymerization processes;

(xvi) distinguish between aliphatic and

aromatic hydrocarbons;

(xvii) relate the properties of benzene to its structure

(xviii) compare the various classes of alkanols;

(xix) determine the processes involved in ethanol


(xx) examine the importance of ethanol as an

alternative energy provider;

(xxi) differentiate between alkanals and alkanones;

(xxii) compare the various classes of alkanoic


(xxiii) identify natural sources of alkanoates;





(f) Alkanoates

Formation from alkanoic acids and

Alkanols – fats and oils as alkanoates.


Production of soap and margarine from

alkanoates and distinction between

detergents and soaps.

(g) Amines (Alkanamines) Primary,

Secondary, tertiary

(h) Carbohydrates

Classification – mono-, di- and

polysaccharides, composition, chemical tests

for simple sugars and reaction with

concentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid.

Hydrolysis of complex sugars e.g. cellulose

form cotton and starch from cassava, the

uses of sugar and starch in the production of

alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals and


(i) Giant molecules e.g. proteins, enzymes,

natural rubbers and polymers.

(xxiv) specify the uses of alkanoates;

(xxv) distinguish between detergent and soap;

(xxvi) compare the various classes of alkanamine;

(xxvii) identify the natural sources of carbohydrates

and giant molecules;

(xxviii) compare the various classes of


(xxix) infer the product of hydrolysis of


(xxx) determine the uses of carbohydrates;

(xxxi) relate giant molecules to their uses.



Ababio, O.Y. (2005). New School Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, (Third Edition),

Onitsha: Africana FIRST Publishers Limited

Bajah, S.T. Teibo, B.O., Onwu, G and Obikwere, A. (1999). Senior Secondary Chemistry,

Book 1, Lagos: Longman

Bajah, S.T., Teibo, B.O., Onwu, G and Obikwere, A. (2000). Senior Secondary Chemistry,

Books 2 and 3, Lagos: Longman

Ohia, G.N.C., Adewoyin, F.A. and Akpan, B.B. (1997). Exam Focus Chemistry for WASSCE

& JME: Ibadan: University Press Plc

STAN (1987). Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, Ibadan: Heinemann

Sylvester: O.O. (2004). A Comprehensive Practical Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools,

Ibadan: Evans

Uche, I.O., Adenuga, I.J. and Iwuagwu, S.L. (2003). Countdown to WASSCE/SSCE, NECO, JME Chemistry,

Ibadan: Evans

Wisdomline Pass at Once JAMB.

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