The to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:


  1. stimulate and sustain their interest in Agriculture;
  2. acquire basic knowledge and practical skills in Agriculture;
  3. acquire the knowledge of interpretation and the use of data;
  4. stimulate their ability to make deductions using the acquired knowledge in Agriculture The syllabus is divided into five sections as given below:
    1. General Agriculture
    2. Agronomy
    3. Animal Production
    4. Agricultural Economics and Extension
    5. Agricultural Technology







1.             Meaning and Scope of Agriculture


a.       Definition of Agriculture



b.       Branches of Agriculture



2.             Importance of Agriculture


Examples:. provision of raw materials, employment and rural development, e.t.c.


3.             Agricultural Ecology


a.       Ecological zones of West Africa



b.       Agricultural products of each ecological zone


Candidates should be able to:


use the definition of Agriculture in modern terms as it relates to production, processing and marketing;


differentiate between the various branches of Agriculture.


Candidates should be able to:


relate the various contributions of Agriculture to economic development in West Africa.


Candidates should be able to:


differentiate between the features of the ecological zones in West Africa;


classify agricultural products according to each ecological zone;






c.     Environmental factors and their effects on crop and livestock production


4.             Genetics


a.       First and second laws of Mendel



b.       Cell division


c.       Dominance and recessiveness






5.             Farm Inputs


e.g. planting materials, agrochemicals, e.t.c.


6.             History of Agricultural Development in West Africa


a.       Agricultural systems e.g. shifting cultivation, subsistence farming e.t.c


b.       Evolution of national research institutes

e.g. NCRI, IAR, IAR&T, CRIN, NIFOR, FRIN, RRI, NRCRI, NIHORT, LCRI, e.t.c. and international research institutes e.g. IITA, ILRI, ICRISAT, WARDA e.t.c., leading to increased application of science to the development of agriculture.


c.       Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) e.g. RTEP, FERDAMA programmes


d.       National agricultural programmes such as OFN, NAFPP, NALDA, Green Revolution, NCRPs, NARP, Project Coordinating Unit (PCU) e.t.c


e.       Roles of NGOs in agricultural development


differentiate     abiotic     from     factors                           affecting agricultural production.


Candidates should be able to:


apply the first and second laws of Mendel to genetics;


differentiate between the types of cell division.


i.              determine the outcome of genetic crossing involving homozygous and heterozygous traits.

ii.             compute simple probability ratios.


Candidates should be able to:


classify different types of farm inputs and their uses. Candidates should be able to:


compare various agricultural systems.



i.           trace the history of research institutes from past to present;


ii.          asses their role in the development of agriculture.






give reasons for the establishment of ADPs.




evaluate the contributions of national agricultural programmes.




examine the roles of NGOs in the development of agriculture in West Africa.






7.             Role of Government in Agricultural Development


a.       Development of fiscal policies favourable to agricultural production

e.g. import duties, ban on importation, e.t.c.


b.       Government programmes aimed at agricultural development e.g. subsidies, credit facilities, e.t.c.



c.       Provision of infrastructures e.g. transport systems, communication systems, e.t.c.


Candidates should be able to:



evaluate the effects of government policies on agricultural development.




i.           identify the various agricultural incentives provided by the Nigeria government;


ii.          assess their effects on agricultural development.


compare    the     various    infrastructural    facilities provided by government and their uses.






1.                   Rocks and Soil formation


a.       Factors affecting rock weathering and soil formation


b.       i. Soil profile


ii.    Soil texture and structure






iii.     Soil acidity and alkalinity


2.                   Soil Water and Soil Conservation


a.       Soil water: its importance, sources, movement, management and conservation


Candidates should be able to:


identify major types of rocks and soils; factors and processes of soil formation;


differentiate between the horizons in a soil profile;


i.         differentiate between the components of soil;

ii.       compute the proportion of soil constituents;

iii.      analyse soil into its constituents parts;

iv.     determine the water-holding capacity of soil; determine the soil pH.

Candidates should be able to:


i.         compare capillary, gravitational and hygroscopic water; and


ii.       determine water-holding capacity, wilting points and plant available/unavailable water.






b. Soil conservation, leaching, erosion, importance, causes, prevention and control, cropping, burning, oxidation of organic matter and their effects on plant nutrients in the soil


i.         identify the causes of erosion and leaching.

ii.       determine control methods.

c.     Irrigation and drainage methods i.         classify irrigation and drainage systems.

ii.       examine the importance and challenges of irrigation and drainage.

3.            Soil Fertility Candidates should be able to:
a. Macro and micro-nutrients and their roles in plant nutrition: Carbon and Nitrogen cycles i.         classify plant nutrients;

ii.       identify factors affecting their availability.

b. The living population of the soil (flora and fauna) and their roles in soil fertility examine the roles of soil flora and fauna in maintaining soil fertility.
c.     Maintenance     of      soil       fertility: Methods of maintaining soil fertility

e.g. use of cover crops, application of organic manures e.t.c.

i.         compare the different methods of maintaining soil fertility.

ii.       differentiate between organic and inorganic fertilizer, and their methods of application.

iii.      determine common fertilizer ratios.

d. Nutrient deficiency symptoms e.g. chlorosis, sickle leaves, stunting, apical necrosis e.t.c. i.        identify the deficiency symptoms and their causes.

ii.       suggest remedies.

4.            Land Preparation and Soil Tillage Candidates should be able to:
a.    Principles and practices of land preparation and soil tillage i.         compare the different methods of land preparation and soil tillage in relation to different groups of crops;

ii.       give reasons for the advantages and the disadvantages of land preparation and soil tillage.

b. Factors affecting choice of tillage methods: Zero tillage, minimum tillage, e.t.c. give reasons for the choice of tillage methods.
5.            Plant Forms and functions Candidates should be able to:
a.    Parts of monocot and dicot plants and their functions identify plant parts and their functions;






b. The anatomy and morphology of the storage organs of the common crop plants


6.                   Growth,              Development             and Reproduction


a.       Gametogenesis


b.       Pollination


c.       Fertilization


d.       Embryo formation and development



7.                   Plant Propagation and Methods


a.       Sexual: the use of seeds, seed viability, viability test, seed rate and seed germination



b.       Asexual (vegetative propagation) e.g. cutting, budding, grafting, layering, e.t.c.


c.       Nursery and nursery management




8.                   Cropping Systems, Planting Patterns and Plant Densities


a.       Cropping systems: Monocropping, mixed-multiple-, inter-, relay-, strip- and rotational cropping


b.       Planting patterns:

Broadcasting,    row     spacing                             and drilling


c.       Plant densities: single, double and multiple stands


distinguish between monocot and dicot plants




Candidates should be able to:



examine the process of gamete formation; give reasons for different types of pollination; analyse the process of fertilization; and

trace the process of embryo formation and development to the formation of seeds and fruits.


Candidates should be able to:


i.         classify crops propagated by sexual methods;

ii.       determine seed viability and seed rate;

iii.      differentiate between types of seed germination;

iv.     examine the conditions for seed germination.


classify crops into different vegetative propagation methods.



i.         determine appropriate nursery sites, types; their advantages and disadvantages;

ii.       apply the techniques of transplanting seedlings Candidates should be able to:


i.         compare cropping systems.

ii.       apply different cropping systems to solve problems in agriculture.


differentiate between the various planting patterns.


i.         examine the various types of plant densities and their effects on crop yield.

ii.       compute plant density per hectare.




9.            Crop Husbandry


Candidates should be able to:

Common and scientific names, gross morphology, anatomy of storage organs, methods of propagation, husbandry practices, harvesting, processing and storage, common diseases and pests, economic importance of the following groups of crops. i.         apply the different methods of crop propagation, husbandry, harvesting, processing and storage for each crop;


ii.       identify common diseases and pests and their effects on crop yield;


Group 1: Cereals – maize, guinea corn, rice

iii. determine the economic importance of each of

the crops;


Group 2: Legumes – cowpea, groundnut, soyabean

iv. relate their importance to national economic


Group 3: Tubers – yam, cassava, sweet potatoes  
Group 4: Vegetables and Spices – tomatoes, egg plant, pepper, onion,           okro,                      cabbage, amaranthus sp.  
Group 5:   Fruits   –   citrus,   pineapple,


Group 6: Beverages – cocoa, kola, coffee  
Group 7:   Oils   –   oil   palm,   coconut,


Group 8: Latex – para rubber  
Group 9: Fibres – jute, cotton, sisal hemp  
Group 10: Sugars – sugarcane, beet  
10.          Pasture and Forage Crops Candidates should be able to:
a.    Study of gross morphology, methods of propagation and husbandry of common grasses and legumes, and establishment, maintenance, conservation and uses of pastures i.           distinguish between the various methods of conserving pastures e.g. hay- and silage- making.

ii.          classify common grasses and legumes used as pastures and forage;

iii.        differentiate between pasture and forage crops by their common and scientific names.

b.    Study of natural grasslands and their distribution in West Africa relate different vegetational zones to their dominant pasture species.




c.     Range management



11.               Floriculture


Establishment, maintenance and uses of ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers



12.               Weeds


a.       Gross morphology, methods of reproduction, dispersal and control of weeds



b.       Weed control methods – weeding, mulching, cover cropping, tillage, herbicides and trap cropping


13.               Crop Diseases


Identification of disease–causing organisms both in store and in the field.


A simple account of diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses; the nature of the damage, methods of transmission and common methods of control


14.               Crop pests


a.       General account of pests of agricultural plants both in the field and in the store, their types, importance, principles and methods of prevention and control


b.       Life cycles of: biting insects e.g. grasshopper; boring insects e.g. weevils; sucking insects e.g. aphids and cotton strainer.


c.       Common pesticides and their side effects


determine range types and utilization of range resources in Nigeria


Candidates should be able to:


i.           distinguish between common ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers;

ii.          determine their uses and maintenance.


Candidates should be able to:


i.            identify weeds with their common and scientific name;.

ii.          classify weeds according to their mode of dispersal.


apply various weed control methods.


Candidates should be able to:


i.            distinguish between common store and field disease – causing organisms;

ii.          relate various disease-causing organisms to the damage caused, symptoms and their mode of spread;

iii.         apply appropriate control methods.




Candidates should be able to:


i.            identify the various field and store pests;

ii.          assess their economic importance;

iii.         relate various prevention and control methods to different pests.



i.            describe the life cycles of various insects;

ii.          apply the knowledge of the life cycles of insect pests to their prevention and control.



i.            differentiate between common pesticides; and

ii.          examine their mode of action on pests.






15.               Forest management (Silviculture)


a.    Importance: Source of wood, pulp, fibre and other forest products


b.    Conservation: regulation, exploitation, regeneration,                                           afforestation, agro-forestry and taungya system


16.               Crop improvement


Methods of crop improvement e.g. introduction, selection, crossing, quarantine e.t.c.


Candidates should be able to:


relate various forest products to their uses.



i.            compare different forest conservation methods;

ii.          apply the various methods appropriately.



Candidates should be able to:


i.            give reasons for crop improvement.

ii.          distinguish between various methods of crop improvement.





1.            Forms and classification of major animals in West Africa


Candidates should be able to:

a.    Species, breeds and distribution i.            classify various breeds of farm animals;

ii.          locate where they are found.

b.    External features of cattle, sheep, goat, pigs, rabbits and poultry identify their characteristic features.
2.            General      terminology     in                      animal production Candidates should be able to:
Common terms used in animal husbandry,

e.g. calving, kidding, castrate, capon, veal, mutton, e.t.c.

use various terms in animal husbandry.
3.            Anatomy and physiology of farm animals Candidates should be able to:
a.    Functions of tissues and organs of farm animals distinguish between various functions of tissues and organs of farm animals.
b. Animal body systems e.g. digestive (ruminants and non-ruminants), reproductive, respiratory, urinary (excretory) and nervous systems. compare different body systems in farm animals.





4.            Reproduction in farm animals


Candidates should be able to:

a.    Gametogenesis, oestrus cycle, signs of heat and heat periods, secondary sexual characters, gestation periods, parturition and the role of hormones in reproduction. i.            give an account of the process of reproduction in farm animals.

ii.          determine the role of hormones in reproduction.

b.   Development, nourishment and birth of young, mammary glands and lactation in farm animals. trace the development in farm animals from fertilization to birth.
c.     Egg formation and incubation in poultry. trace the process of egg formation and incubation in poultry.
5.            Animal nutrition Candidates should be able to:
a.    Feed nutrients and functions identify the various feed nutrients, their sources and functions.
b. Feeds and feeding: Simple ration formulation – balanced ration, common pasture/forage crops e.g. guinea grass, elephant grass, giant star grass. Andropogon sp, Calopogonium sp. Hay and silage preparation, different types of rations, namely maintenance ration and production ration. i.            differentiate between the types of animal feeds and their formulation.

ii.          relate the various types of rations to different classes of livestock.

c. Nutrient deficiencies: Causes and symptoms of malnutrition and their correction in farm animals. i.            trace symptoms to nutrient deficiencies in farm animals.

ii.          apply appropriate corrective measures to nutrient deficiencies in farm animals.

6.            Livestock management Candidates should be able to:
Housing, feeding, sanitation and veterinary care of ruminants, pigs, rabbits and poultry under intensive, semi- intensive and extensive systems of management from birth to slaughter. apply the different management practices for farm animals.




7.            Animal Health


Candidates should be able to:

a.       Animal diseases (pathology)

i.         Environmental                                               factors predisposing animals to diseases; casual organisms, symptoms, transmission and effects.

ii.       Preventive and curative methods for diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa.

i.            identify diseases of farm animals and causative agents.

ii.          classify livestock diseases based on symptoms and mode of transmission;

iii.         apply appropriate preventive and curative measures against diseases caused by theses pathogens.

b.       Parasites (parasitology)

i.         Life      cycles      and             economic importance of livestock parasites

e.g. endoparasites, ectoparasites and disease vectors.


i.           classify livestock parasites;

ii.          determine their role in disease transmission;

iii.        trace life cycles of parasites from egg to adult stage.

ii.       Prevention and control

–          diping

–          spraying

–          deworming

–          sanitation

apply appropriate prevention and control methods against livestock parasites.
8.          Fisheries and Wildlife Candidates should be able to:
a.    Fish culture systems; Common types of fishes e. g Tilapia, Catfish, etc. i.        identify the common types of fishes in West Africa;
i.      Extensive systems: inland and deep sea fishing, lakes and rivers. ii.       differentiate between various systems of fish farming in West Africa;
ii.   Semi-intensive systems: dams iii.      determine the factors to be considered in intensive farming.
iii. Intensive systems: fish ponds  
Factors to consider in ponds establishment and pond management e.g. pond fertilization, liming and silting.  
b.       Fish harvesting and processing methods


i.         Use of drag nets, hook and line, etc.

ii.       Curing, sun-drying and smoking.

i.            assess the advantages and disadvantages of different fish harvesting and processing methods.

ii.          use the various methods of catching fish;


iii.         apply the various methods of fish preservation.





iii. Fishery regulations


c.     Wildlife management


Habit conservation, feeding, domestication,                                              harvesting, processing and wildlife regulations.


9.          Animal Improvement



Methods of animals improvement e. g. introduction, breeding, quarantine and selection: Breeding systems – inbreeding, line-breeding, cross-breeding, artificial insemination


apply fishery regulations in Nigeria.


i.              identify animals found in West African game reserves.

ii.             give reasons for the establishment of game reserves.

iii.           apply common wildlife regulations.





Candidates should be able to:


i.              give reasons for animal improvement;

ii.             differentiate between the various methods of animal improvement







1.                   Factors of agricultural production


a.       Land






b.       Labour




c.       Capital



d.       Management




















2.                   Basic Economic Principles


a.       Demand and supply


Candidates should be able to:





i.              identify the various forms of land ownership;

ii.             examine their effects on agriculture;

iii.           differentiate between the various features of land and their effects on land use.





differentiate between the types and sources of labour and their effects on agricultural production.


compare the sources of capital and associated problems.



determine the function of a farm manager in an agricultural enterprise.


Candidates should be able to:


i.         relate demand to supply in agricultural production;









b. Production function:

Input/input,   Output/output Input/output relationships; stages of production, concepts of diminishing returns, scale of preference and choice.


3.                   Characteristic Features of Agricultural Production


Smallness of farm holdings: biological limits of farm production and susceptibility of farm production to climate, seasonality of farm productions, price elasticity in demand and supply of agricultural produce.


4.                   Labour Management


a.       Labour relations: Supervision, etc.



b.       Types of labour: Permanent labour etc.



c.        National labour laws and regulations.


5.                   Farm Management


a.       Qualities, functions and problems of farm manager.


b.       Records and record-keeping: Types and importance of record-keeping – livestock records, profit and loss account book.


c.        Stock evaluation, gross and net profits in farm management.


6.                   Marketing of Agricultural Produce


a.       Importance of Marketing.


ii.        interpret geographical representation of demand and supply;


i.              relate input to output;


ii.             deduce economic concepts from graphic representation.






Candidates should be able to:




i.               distinguish between the common features of agricultural production and produce.

ii.             compute elasticity of demand and supply.




Candidates should be able to:


identify the various ways of achieving labour efficiency;


differentiate between the various types and sources of labour;


apply national labour laws and regulations.



Candidates should be able to:


identify the qualities, functions and problems of a farm manager.


i.         differentiate between the types of farm records;


ii.       give reasons for keeping farm records.




ompare gross and net margins.



Candidates should be able to:


evaluate the importance of agricultural marketing






b.       Marketing channels.






c.        Characteristic features of agricultural product affecting their marketing.



7.                   Agricultural Extension


a.       Meaning and importance.


b.       The role of Agricultural Development programmes, universities, research institutes and farmers’ organizations (Cooperative societies).


c.        Extension methods including demonstration plots, use of visual aids, mass media, etc.


d.       Problems of agricultural extension in West Africa and possible solutions.


i.              classify marketing agents and their functions.

ii.             determine the various ways in which marketing channels pose problems in agricultural production.


determine the characteristics of agricultural products affecting their marketing.



Candidates should be able to:


identify the importance of agricultural extension.


analyse the roles of government and non- governmental organizations in agricultural extension education.



differentiate between the various extension methods.




i.              examine the problems of agricultural extension in West Africa.

ii.             provide possible solutions.





1.                   Surveying and farmstead Planning


a.       Meaning and importance


b.       Common surveying equipment, their uses and care


c.        Common survey methods


d.       Principles of farmstead outlay.


Candidates should be able to:


examine the relevance of farm survey to agriculture.


classify common survey equipment, their uses and care.

differentiate between the common survey methods. apply survey principles to farmstead outlay.






2.                   Simple farm tools







3.                   Farm Machinery


a.       Types e.g. ploughs, harrows, etc


b.       Uses and maintenance of farm machinery








4.                   Mechanization and sources of farm power


a.       Sources of farm power: e. g. animal and machines


b.       Advantages and disadvantages of mechanization of agriculture


c.        Problems and prospects of mechanized agriculture in West Africa


5.                   Processing and storage


a.       Processing: traditional and modern methods of food processing e.g. gari, rice and groundnut processing, etc.



b.       Storage




6.                   Introduction to biotechnology


Basic terms, e.g. tissue, culture, and anther culture and genetic engineering


Candidates should be able to:

i.              identify simple farm tools;

ii.             use and maintain farm tools;

iii.           compare the advantages and disadvantages of simple farm tools.


Candidates should be able to:


identify common farm machines and equipment.


i.              classify farm machinery according to their uses.

ii.             apply appropriate maintenance routines on farm machines.

iii.           operate farm machines and equipment.
















Candidates should be able to:



identify sources of farm power and their application.



distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of mechanization.


assess the problems and prospects of mechanized agriculture in West Africa.


Candidates should be able to:


i.   identify the importance of agricultural processing.

ii. differentiate between the various methods of processing agricultural produce.





i. compare different storage method. ii.apply different storage methods.



Candidates should be able to:


i.              use basic terms in biotechnology.

ii.             provide reasons for the importance of biotechnology.







7.                   Computers in Agriculture


a.       Features of computers


b.       Uses of computers in agriculture: disease and weather forecasting, ration formulation, database and simulation studies, etc.


8.                   Introduction to agricultural research and statistics


a.       Basic concepts in agricultural experiments



b.       Interpretation of results, e.g. measures of central tendency and experimental errors.













Candidates should be able to:


identify the various components of the computer. use the computer to enhance agricultural practices.




Candidates should be able to:



use basic concepts in agricultural experiments.



i.              draw inferences from experimental results.

ii.             compare simple measures of central tendency.









Adeniyi, M. O. names(s)? (1999). Agricultural Science:    Countdown to Senior Secondary Certificate

Examination, Ibadan: Evans


Akinsanmi, A. O. (2000) Junior Secondary Agricultural Science, Uk:   Longman



Akinsanmi, O. A. (2000) Senior Secondary Agricultural Science, Uk:   Longman



Anthonio, Q. B. O. (1999) General Agriculture for West Africa, London: George Allen and Unwin



Daramola, A. M. Names(s)? (1999). Agricultural Science for SSCE and JME, Ibadan: University




Falusi, A. O. and Adeleye, I. O. A (2000) Agricultural Science for Junior Secondary Schools Books 1- 3, Ibadan: Onibonoje



Komolafe, M. F. names(s)? (1981). Agricultural Science for West African Schools and Colleges

2nd Edition, Ibadan: University Press Ltd.


Komolafe, M. F. names(s)? (2004). Agricultural Science for senior secondary Schools 1, 2 and 3, Ibadan: University Press Ltd.


Komolafe, M. F. names(s)? (2004). Practical Agriculture for West African Schools and Colleges,

(2nd Edition),Ibadan: University Press Ltd.


Philips T. A. (1986) Agricultural Notebook, Lagos: Longman


STAN (1999) Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools, Lagos: Longman.


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