IJMB 2022 ANSWERS / IJMB 2022 PAST QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1.i.Small businesses contribute to local economies by bringing growth and innovation to the community in which the business is established.
ii.Small businesses also help stimulate economic growth by providing employment opportunities to people who may not be employable by larger corporations.
2fast adaptation to new situations with its flexibility feature;
3 Encouraging entrepreneurship;
4 product differentiation through boutique production;
5 working as sub-industry in large enterprises.
IJMB SOCIOLOGY ANSWERS
Pressure Group Can Be Defined as group of people who share an interest, concern, or set of opinions and who try to influence politics or the policies of government, business, etc.
(i)Pressure groups try to make the government more attentive to the needs of the people. This is because as groups with many members sometimes nationally spread, they command more respect than individuals who may be fighting for similar causes.
(ii)Pressure groups provide specialised and expert information to the government on their interests and explain government policies to their members and the general public. Thus they are an important link between the government and the people.
(iii)They help to educate their members and the whole society on their fundamental human and political rights, and on some government policies.
(iii)The political education and consciousness of citizens are promoted through the activities of pressure groups.
DECISION Is defined as the process of identifying alternatives courses and choosing an appropriate alternative when faced with decisions. Likewise, the goal of every decision is to obtain a form of reward.
Obstacles To An Effective Decision
effective decision-making can be difficult because of conflict. Most individuals dislike conflict and will avoid it when possible. However, the best decision might be one that is going to involve some conflict. Consider a manager who has a subordinate who is often late to work, causing others to have to step away from their responsibilities in order to cover for the late employee. The manager needs to have a conversation with that employee to correct the behavior, but the employee is not going to like the conversation and may react in a negative way. Both of them are going to be uncomfortable. The situation is likely to involve conflict, which most people find stressful. Yet, the correct decision is still to have the conversation even if (or especially if) the employee otherwise is an asset to the department.
decision-making is also limited by our own biases. We tend to be more comfortable with ideas, concepts, things, and people that are familiar to us or similar to us. We tend to be less comfortable with that which is unfamiliar, new, and different. One of the most common biases that we have, as humans, is the tendency to like other people who we think are similar to us (because we like ourselves).
on demographic characteristics such as race, gender, and age), they can also be a result of shared experiences (such as attending the same university) or shared interests (such as being in a book club together). This “similar to me” bias and preference for the familiar can lead to a variety of problems for managers: hiring less-qualified applicants because they are similar to the manager in some way, paying more attention to some employees’ opinions and ignoring or discounting others, choosing a familiar technology over a new one that is superior, sticking with a supplier that is known over one that has better quality, and so on.
managers frequently make decisions under conditions of uncertainty—they cannot know the outcome of each alternative until they’ve actually chosen that alternative. Consider, for example, a manager who is trying to decide between one of two possible marketing campaigns. The first is more conservative but is consistent with what the organization has done in the past. The second is more modern and edgier, and might bring much better results . . . or it might be a spectacular failure. The manager making the decision will ultimately have to choose one campaign and see what happens, without ever knowing what the results would have been with the alternate campaign. That uncertainty can make it difficult for some managers to make decisions, because committing to one option means forgoing other options.
Managers often face time constraints that can make effective decision-making a challenge. When there is little time available to collect information and to rationally process it, we are much less likely to make a good nonprogrammed decision. Time pressures can cause us to rely on heuristics rather than engage in deep processing. While heuristics save time, however, they don’t necessarily lead to the best possible solution. The best managers are constantly assessing the risks associated with acting too quickly against those associated with not acting quickly enough.
(v)Escalation of Commitment
Given the lack of complete information, managers don’t always make the right decision initially, and it may not be clear that a decision was a bad one until after some time has passed. For example, consider a manager who had to choose between two competing software packages that her organization will use on a daily basis to enhance efficiency.
3.Rasool vs Nabi
In Islam, there are two types of messengers which are used by the Quran, the Rasool and the Nabi.
Rasool is defined as a messenger, an individual who was given a new Sharia or code of law by Allah (God). The message is received by the Rasool as a vision while he is asleep or as a conversation with angels while he is awake.A Rasool is born a Nabi but becomes officially a Rasool the instant he receives the position and makes it known. Of the several thousand Nabis and the 25 prophets that are mentioned in the Quran, there are five Rasools who are called Ulul azm:
Nabi” is a term that is used in both Arabic and Hebrew to refer to “prophet.” While a Rasool can communicate with angels, a Nabi can only see them in his sleep. Both the Rasool and the Nabi are tasked with sharing and delivering the messages of Allah (God) to His people.
15a.hydrogen bonding, interaction involving a hydrogen atom located between a pair of other atoms having a high affinity for electrons; such a bond is weaker than an ionic bond or covalent bond but stronger than van der Waals forces.
The conditions for hydrogen bonding are:
The molecule must contain a highly electronegative atom linked to the hydrogen atom. The higher the electronegativity more is the polarization of the molecule.
The size of the
electronegative atom should be small. The smaller the size, the greater is the electrostatic attraction.
13.eRaoult’s law states that a solvent’s partial vapour pressure in a solution (or mixture) is equal or identical to the vapour pressure of the pure solvent multiplied by its mole fraction in the solution.
Isotope, one of two or more species of atoms of a chemical element with the same atomic number and position in the periodic table and nearly identical chemical behaviour but with different atomic masses and physical properties.
14a.Moseley’s law states that the square root of the frequency of the emitted x-ray is proportional to the atomic number.
i.ionization energy:the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom or molecule.
iI.Electron affinity is defined as the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom (in the gaseous
phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion. In other words, the neutral
atom’s likelihood of gaining an electron.
Allotropy is the existence of a chemical element in two or more forms, which may differ in the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids or in the occurrence of molecules that contain different numbers of atoms. It may be monotropic, in which case one of the forms is the most stable under all conditions…
Graphite conduct good electricity while Diamond can not conduct electricity…
Point To Back Up The Argument
Diamond is insoluble in water. It does not conduct electricity. Every atom in a diamond is bonded to its neighbours by four strong covalent bonds, leaving no free electrons and no ions. This explains why diamond does not conduct electricity.
Graphite is insoluble in water. It has a high melting point and is a good conductor of electricity, which makes it a suitable material for the electrodes needed in electrolysis.
Each carbon atom is bonded into its layer with three strong covalent bonds. This leaves each atom with a spare electron, which together form a delocalised ‘sea’ of electrons loosely bonding the layers together. These delocalised electrons can all move along together – making graphite a good electrical conductor.
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