CIVIC EDUCATION OBJ:
1-10 : CBDCAABBBC
11 -20 : DDAACBABBC
21 -30 : BBABCCDAAB
31 -40 : CCBCAADACA
41 -50 : ABBCABBDAB
CIVIC EDUCATION THEORY:
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by promoting the interests of a particular nation, particularly with the aim of gaining and maintaining self-governance, or full sovereignty, over the group’s homeland.
i) Formation of political parties.
ii) Formation of unions and associations that can protect the interest of members of the public.
iii) Support for the government through constructive criticism.
iv) Establishment of human right protection groups.
v) Provision of valuable ideas and information for
vi) Provision of legal aids for poor citizens who cannot afford the services of lawyers.
This drug is definitely a household name. It comes in different popular brand names such as panadol, boska and M&B. Due to its analgesic, antipyretic and anti-
inflammatory properties, paracetamol is widely used – and
frequently abused – for the treatment of fever, headache
as well as mild to moderate body aches. Although it is relatively safe especially when compared with most other pain killers, it is not without adverse effects mostly when
consumed in excess. Evidently, the most dreaded adverse
effect is hepatotoxicity (liver damage) and this may occur after the maximum recommended dose of 4g (8 tablets) is exceeded per day.
This is another widely abused drug in Nigeria. Popular
brands include Alabukun and Phensic. Aspirin belongs to the group of drugs called Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs (NSAIDs) which are often employed in the
treatment of severe headaches (such as migraine),
dysmenorrhoea (menstrual pain), rheumatoid arthritis,
osteoarthritis and many other causes of pain. Other
NSAIDs include ibuprofen, diclofenac, piroxicam
(feldene), indometacin and so on. They act by inhibiting
cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme which is involved in the production of prostaglandins that normally protect the
epithelial lining of the stomach from acid secretion.
Codeine is an opioid analgesic also used in the management of pain and diarrhoea. Like other opioids, it
is widely abused because of its potential to produce
euphoria (high mood) when consumed in large quantities.
Hence, codeine abusers consume large quantities of
codeine-containing cough syrups which ultimately leads to
adverse effects like dependence, tolerance, sedation, euphoria, vomiting, etc.
Antibiotics such as tetracycline, metronidazole (flagyl)
and ciprofloxacin (ciprotab) are equally victims of
widespread abuse. For instance, ciprofloxacin is a
fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity variously used in the treatment of gastroenteritis (such
as cholera and dysentery), typhoid, sexually transmitted
infections (such as gonorrhoea and chancroid), skin
infections as well as urinary tract infections. However,
it’s not without adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting,
abdominal pain, headache, dizziness and rashes.
These refer to drugs commonly used in the treatment of
sleep and anxiety disorders. Some of the common
examples are diazepam (valium), bromazepam (lexotan)
and lorazepam. Unfortunately, a lot of people with sleep
difficulties have become dependent on sleeping pills such
that they can hardly sleep without them. However,
prolonged use of these medications is not without adverse
effects such as respiratory depression, confusion,
tolerance, dependence, visual disturbances, reduced libido
(sexual drive) and headache.
i) Someone who has a prescription for pain or anxiety medication, and they take a different amount than what is prescribed by their doctor. For example, taking 2 pills instead of just 1 or taking twice the daily amount in a single day.
ii) Someone who does not have a prescription for a drug at all, but is using it anyway, bought off the street or received from a friend or a family member.
iii) Someone who is not old enough to use the drug alcohol, but is using it anyway.
iv) Someone who is combining the use of different drugs when they should not be, such as drinking alcohol while taking prescription medications in spite of a warning label regarding this.
v) People who are taking drugs and engaging in activities that are not advisable, such as someone who takes heavy medication and then is driving a car, again…against the warning labels.
i) Changes in personality and behavior like a lack of motivation, irritability, and agitation.
ii) Bloodshot eyes and frequent bloody noses.
iii) Shakes, tremors, or slurred speech.
iv) Change in their daily routines.
v) Lack of concern for personal hygiene.
vi) Unusual need for money; financial problems.
Choose any six (6)
i) Establishment of drug control agencies e.g.
National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), National Agency for Food and Drug
Control (NAFDAC) and Non Governmental
ii) Access to hard drugs should be controlled by those
iii) Proper family upbringing should be encouraged so as
to curtail undue influence on children.
iv) Youths should be taught moral and religious principles.
v) Youths should be encouraged to resist negative peer pressure.
vi) Good knowledge of drugs by individuals and the public should be encouraged.
vii) Stiff penalty should be applied for drug related offences.
viii) There should be effective counseling services for youths on drug related matters.
ix) Life coping skills should be provided for youths to enable them deal with challenges.
x) Media campaign against drug abuse should be intensified.
xi) Exemplary lifestyles by parents/guardians and other adults should be encouraged.
xii) Selected and recognised outlets for the sale of drugs should be controlled.
i) Administrative Class:
This comprises of the most senior civil servants who organize and coordinate the activities of the ministries. They execute high-level administrative work, advice ministers in formulation and implementation of policies and serve as communication link between the minister and other civil servants.
Recruitment to this class is based on university education and very competitive written examinations and interviews conducted by the civil service commission. In this class are directors-general, other directors, deputy directors, assistant directors, etc.
ii) *Executive Class:*
The executive class implements the general policies and programmes of the government on a daily basis. They supervise and control the activities of their subordinates and help to collect facts that aid in making policy decisions.
This class comprises of executive officers, senior executive officers and senior technical officers who are recruited after possessing professional diplomas and certificates as well as G.C.E. A-Level or its equivalent.
iii) *The Professional Class:*
This class of officers are recruited as a result of their specialized training, skills, scientific and technical knowledge. The professional class includes lawyers, medical doctors, engineers, architects, accountants and teachers.
They offer professional advice on the technical policies of the government and supervise sensitive projects undertaken by the government. Recruitment into this class is based on professional or university education.
Also read Merits and Demerits of Presidential System Of Government
iv) *The Clerical Class: *
This class of workers include typists, clerical officers, clerical assistants and secretaries who help staff in the other classes to carry out their functions. Their job involves keeping records, movement of files, preparation of data and vouchers and payment of claims. They are holders of secondary school certificates and G.C.E O-Level or equivalent professional certificates e.g. in typing.
v) *The Auxiliary Class:*
The categories of workers in this class include cleaners, drivers, painters, messengers, porters and gardeners. This work involves manual labour, while the qualification for entry is the first leaving school certificate.
The Civil service reforms of 1988 introduced some modifications to the traditional structure of the service, which include the following:
1) It abolished the post of permanent secretary and replaced it with that of director-general who was a political appointee.
2) The distinction between the executive and administrative classes was removed.
3) Civil servants were to serve in the ministries for which they were primarily qualified.
4) The minister was the chief executive and accounting officer of his ministry.
Constitutional Democracy is the democracy that the authority of the majority is limited by legal and institutional means so that the rights of individuals and minorities are respected.
a) Popular Sovereignty:The people are the ultimate source of the authority of the government which derives its right to govern from their consent.
b) Majority Rule And Minority Rights:*Although “the majority rules,” the fundamental rights of individuals in the minority are protected.
c) Limited Government: The powers of government are limited by law and a written or unwritten constitution which those in power obey.
d) Separated And Shared Powers: Powers are separated among different agencies or branches of government. Each agency or branch has primary responsibility for certain functions such as legislative, executive, and judicial functions. However, each branch also shares these functions with the other branches.
e) Checks And Balances:* Different agencies or branches of government have adequate power to check the powers of other branches. Checks and balances may include the power of judicial review the power of courts to declare actions of other branches of government to be contrary to the constitution and therefore null and void.
f) Due Process Of Law:* Individual rights to life, liberty, and property are protected by the guarantee of due process of law.
g) Leadership Succession Through Elections:* Elections insure that key positions in government will be contested at periodic intervals and that the transfer of governmental authority is accomplished in a peaceful and orderly process.
D = Bone
E = Fish meal
F = Guinea Grass
A = calcium
B = calcium
i)Braking into fragment
SPECIMEN G – LICE
SPECIMEN H – TICK
SPECIMEN I – ROUNDWORM
SPECIMEN J – GOAT SKIN
(i)They act as vectors of diseases
(ii)They suck blood of their host, thus leading to aneamia, loss of weight and death
(i)They Cause great annoyance and irritation to their host.
(ii)They act as vectors of diseases e.g. tick fever and heart water diseases.
(i)They reduce the growth of host animals.
(ii)It causes indigestion and constipation.
G – Cattle, Poultry bird
H – Cattle.
1. Animals should be kept in a clean surroundings.
2. Ensure regular dipping of animals in ascaricide solution to destroy lice.
3. Overcrowding of birds should be avoided.
2. La mencha
1. It is used for the removal of roots of trees, stumping.
2. For tilling of very hard soil.
1. It is used for weeding.
2. For transplanting some crops.
1. It is used for leveling or spreading soil surface after hoeing.
2. For covering vegetable seeds when they are broadcast.
1. It is used for sharpening blades of farm and fishing tools.
2. It is used for smoothening rough surfaces of farm and fishing implements.
Chemistry Practical Solutions 👇
Volume of pipette used=25cm3.
Indicator used= Methyl orange
Under Titration, Rough, 1st, 2nd, 3rd,
Final burette reading; |25.00| |23.40| |23.50| 23.60|
Initial burette reading; |0.00| |0.00| |0.00| |0.00|
Volume of A used; |25.00| |23.40| |23.50| |23.60|
Average volume of Acid used=23.40+23.50+23.60/3 =70.5/3=23.50cm3
This is because it is a reaction between a weak acid and strong base
A funnel should be used while transferring the acid into the burette.
Conc of A in mol|dm³ =?
Conc of A in g|dm³ = 12.75g|dm³
Molar mass of A, NaHSO⁴ = 23+1+32+64
Conc(mol/dm³) = conc(g/dm³)/molar mass
Con of B in mol/dm³ =?
Ca =0.106, Cb =? Va =23.50cm³, Vb =25.00cm³
na=1 , nb=1
Conc of B in g/dm³=?
Molar mass of B , NaOH=23+16+1=40g/mol
From; conc(g/dm³)=conc(mol/dm³)*molar mass
Mass of salt formed =?
Recall mole of NaHSO⁴=?
From; mole =con(mol/dm³)*vol(cm³)/1000
Mole=0.0025mol of NaHSO⁴
By proportion 1mol of NaHSO⁴ produce 1mol of Na²SO⁴ 0.0025mol of NaHSO⁴ will produce X mol of Na²SO⁴ X=0.0025*1=0.0025mol of NaSO⁴
Molar mass of Na²SO⁴=(23*2) + 32 + (16*4)
Recall; mole =mole/molar mass
Mass =mole * molar mass
Mass =0.36g of Na²SO⁴
C + 5cm³ of distilled water
It dissolve completely
C is a soluble salt
Solution + NaOH + Heat
Effervescence occurs in which a colourless gas with pungent smell and turns red litmus paper to blue is given off.
NH³ gas from NH⁴+ is present
Stirring rod of HCL + gas given off
a gas which gives a pop sound is given off
H² is present
Solution C + drops of BaCL²
a white precipitate is formed
CO²^-3, SO²^-4, SO²^-3, May be present.
Solution in C(i) + dil HCL
the white precipitate dissolve is dil HCL and effervescence occurs in which a colourless and odourless gas which turns blue litmus red and lime water milky is given off
CO² gas from CO²^3- confirmed
concentrated acid can be defined as an acid formed when a large quantity of an acid dissolve in a small or little volume of water.
A strong acid is defined as a type of acid that ionize completely in a solution
Activated charcoal is used as an adsorbent material
(i)Reddish – Brown
(ii) I – red, II – brown.
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