2022 Ijmb Sociology Answers




*SOCIALIZATION* is a lifelong process during which we learn about social expectations and how to interact with other people. Nearly all of the behavior that we consider to be ‘human nature’ is actually learned through socialization. And, it is during socialization that we learn how to walk, talk, and feed ourselves, about behavioral norms that help us fit in to our society, and so much more.



There is no better way to start than to talk about the role of family in our social development, as family is usually considered to be the most important agent of socialization. As infants, we are completely dependent on others to survive. Our parents, or those who play the parent role, are responsible for teaching us to function and care for ourselves. They, along with the rest of our family, also teach us about close relationships, group life, and how to share resources. Additionally, they provide us with our first system of values, norms, and beliefs – a system that is usually a reflection of their own social status, religion, ethnic group, and more.


The next important agent of childhood socialization is the school. Of course, the official purpose of school is to transfer subject knowledge and teach life skills, such as following directions and meeting deadlines. But, students don’t just learn from the academic curriculum prepared by teachers and school administrators. In school, we also learn social skills through our interactions with teachers, staff, and other students. For example, we learn the importance of obeying authority and that to be successful, we must learn to be quiet, to wait, and sometimes to act interested even when we’re not.



Peer groups allow children to form relationships and learn without the direction of adults.

Peer Group


Another agent of socialization that relates to school is our peer group. Unlike the agents we’ve already discussed – family and school – peer groups give us an opportunity as children to form relationships with others on our own terms, plus learn things without the direction of an adult.




1. A group is more or less permanent while a crowd is very short lived or transitory in nature.

2. A group can any time turn to a crowd and a crowd can also any time turn to a group.

3. In a crowd, there is emotional excitement of a strong nature which is absent in a group.


4. Drives of more primitive types are found in a crowd where one looses its rational behaviour and becomes animalistic, irrational, antisocial being guided by the emotional aspect and excitement. Prepotent drives like fear, anger and love in their raw, naked and uncivilized form are found.

But members of a group behave in a very organized, constructive, social and civilized manner. They are less demonstrative in their behaviour and show value based activities.

5. There is more face to face and shoulder to shoulder contact, more forward and backward movement and physical action in an action crowd, while in a group such actions are almost absent.



3a) Pressure groups are defined as organised groups that have a strong influence on the public and the making of government policies.


i.) Pressure groups try to make the government more attentive to the needs of the people. This is because as groups with many members sometimes nationally spread, they command more respect than individuals who may be fighting for similar causes.


ii.) Pressure groups provide specialised and expert information to the government on their interests and explain government policies to their members and the general public. Thus they are an important link between the government and the people.

III.) They help to educate their members and the whole society on their fundamental human and political rights, and on some government policies.

iv) The political education and consciousness of citizens are promoted through the activities of pressure groups.


V) They promote economic stability of the country through their useful advice to government on economic policies. Example is the Nigerian Association of Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Mines and Agriculture (NACCIMA).

Vi) Pressure groups help to integrate the differing interests of various groups in the society into a manageable whole. With this, the government’s attention to these needs will be more focused and effectively addressed.




Balanced Diet: is a diet containing all the six food classes/types of food in the right proportion to meet the body’s requirement for growth, repair and maintenance.



Maintenance ration is given to farm animals just sufficient/enough to maintain/sustain the basic/basal metabolic functions of the body.


Production ration is given to farm animals to enable them produce either egg, meat, milk, offspring, hair/fur/wool/work.



Malnutrition is a condition which results when an animal is fed on a diet which is deficient in quantity and quality of the essential nutrients in the right proportion.




(i) Slow or retarded growth

(ii) Loss of weight/emaciation.


(iii) Low production/ reduced egg laying in birds/decrease in milk production in cow, etc.

(iv) High mortality rate in young animals.

(v) High susceptibility to disease attack.


(vi) Physical deformities such as rickets, osteomalacia, etc.

(vii) Retarded growth



(i) Nursery is done on ground, beds or seed boxes and trays with top soil mixed and sterilise

(ii) Seeds are sown in drills 5cm apart and 2.5cm deep.

(iii) Shading, weeding, watering and mulching are done regularly.


(iv) Transplanting is done when seedlings are 3 weeks old on Nursery





(i) Early Christian and Byzantine

(ii) Anglo-Saxon and viking


(iii) Insular

(iv) Ottonian

(v) Romansque


(vi) Carolingian

(vii) Gothic



(i) Elaborately decorative patterns

(ii) Bright colors

(iii) iconography


(iv) Christian subject matter

(v) The use of precious metals

(vi) stylized figures.




(i) Clay


(ii) Bronze

(iii) Brass



(i) Bronze Head

(ii) Terra Cotta




(i) They are mainly done in terra-cotta and bronze.

(ii) They are highly naturalistic.


(iii) They have profuse scarification.

(iv) They have elaborate ornamentations, e.g. beads.

(v) Human figures are mainly represented.


(vi) Heads are in life size.

(vii) They are symbolic.

(viii) Eyes are round and without pupils.






Papier mache is a light strong molding material of wastepaper pulped with glue and other additives




(i) The use of paper strips glued together with adhesive

(ii) The use of paper pulp obtained by soaking or boiling paper to which glue is then added.



(i) STEP 1:

Set up your work space

(ii)STEP 2:


Soak the small bits of papers inside water for at least 24 hours.

(iii) STEP 3:

Remove the soaked pieces of paper and squeeze out the excess water.


(iv) STEP 4:

Pound the soak paper inside mortar and pestle

(v) STEP 5:


Remove the pounded pulp from the mortar into a bowl.

(vi) STEP 6:

Prepare cassava starch with hot water and mix to a fairly thick consistency (like the preparation of pap)


(vii) STEP 7:

Mix the paper pulp with the starch properly when the starch is cool (white glue can also be used in place of starch).

(viii) STEP 8:


The prepared pulp can be used to mould objects like bowl, cup, jugs, animals etc.




Collage describes both the technique and the resulting work of art in which pieces of paper, photographs, fabric and other ephemera are arranged and stuck down onto a supporting surface.


Basketry, are art and craft of making interwoven objects, usually containers, from flexible vegetable fibres, such as twigs, grasses, osiers, bamboo, and rushes, or from plastic or other synthetic materials



Pottery, is one of the oldest and most widespread of the decorative arts, consisting of objects made of clay and hardened with heat. The objects made are commonly useful ones, such as vessels for holding liquids or plates or bowls from which food can be served.



Printing is the process of making images that can be transferred onto other surfaces. It can be used to make one or more identical images or to create repeating patterns on papers and textiles


Dyeing is the application of dyes or pigments on textile materials such as fibers, yarns, and fabrics with the goal of achieving color with desired color fastness.



Warp is A structural distortion of the support that has become twisted, turned or bent out of shape and is no longer flat or in plane



Weft is a filling thread or yarn in weaving


Clothesalso known as Artwear or “art to wear”, refers to individually designed pieces of (usually) handmade clothing or jewellery created as fine or expressive art.






Textile art is a type of art that uses animal, plant, or synthetic fibers to create practical or decorative objects.


Conclusion:- this is Ijmb sociology and waec visual art incase you don’t understand we have this two exam in day with same time that’s why we posted here for you guys to understand what we mean and easy for you guys to read thanks

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